In 1877 the Great Western Railway extended the UK rail network to Penzance, a mile from Newlyn. A couple of years later the Newlyn School of artists was pioneered by the arrival of Birmingham artists Walter Langley and Edwin Harris in Newlyn in 1882 and 1883. These artists and those that quickly followed were seeking a British equivalent to Concarneau, Quimperlé and Pont-Aven where they had experienced the en-plein air development in French realism championed by Jules Bastien-Lepage. Many finished their education in Paris Ateliers and travelled on to these French towns experiencing the excitement of the new movement and art colonies. Stanhope Alexander Forbes, who arrived in 1884, is widely cited as 'the father' of the Newlyn school of artists. Other founding members include Willam Wainwright, Frank Bramley, Frederick Hall, Albert Chevalier Tayler, Norman Garstin, Frank Richards, Thomas and Caroline Cooper Gotch, Elizabeth Forbes and Henry Scott Tuke prior to settling in Falmouth. Harold Harvey and Dod Procter were amongst a later generation of Newlyn artists to study under Forbes. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Newlyn was the leading avante garde colony of artists in the country and dominated national showcases of artistic output such as the Royal Academy summer exhibitions.